Algal leaf spot: Cephaleuros virescens Symptoms Disease symptoms are exhibited on both abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces as orange, rust-colored, dense silky tufts ranging from 5 to 8 mm in diameter. Diseases Page 1. Timely pruning is also recommended to allow proper passage of air in and out of the guava plantation. brown spots generally at the stalk or calyx end, The entire fruit becomes dark brown to corky and in case of severe infection often develops cracks. Harsh pruning followed by a drench with humidity, temperature from (28-32°c) favourable for the iniation of disease, High soil moisture, cool, wet Raised fruiting le-sions of algal disease exhibiting the … Cercospora leaf spot 6 6. black, lesion get sunken & cracked frequently as fruit enlarge, Lesion are smaller than leaf spot. According to (PCRSC) survey of Pakistan (2015-16) 70026 hectare area under guava cultivation and its production is 414649 tons annually. of Agriculture, University of Sargodha. Close up of algal leaf spot lesion Symptoms Raised, orange-red spots on both upper and lower surfaces of leaves; spots may coalesce to form irregularly shaped patches; spots may also be present on twigs and branches; when the surface of the spot is scraped away, a gray to dark necrotic crust is visible Photo by J.W. Keywords arkansas,division,agriculture,algal leaf spot and excess of sunlight. endstream endobj 41 0 obj <>>>/EncryptMetadata false/Filter/Standard/Length 128/O(�w�{����ج%��x.H�:�l�.�J�c. In this disease mostly start of calyx Infected area of unripe fruits become Guava it’s Diseases and their Management Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important fruit of subtropical countries. before appearing symptoms. Pathogen can be able to cover produce on the surface of diseased tissues principally by pathogen when In this guide, you are going to learn how to make guava leaves paste for the face and hair. 4 spray of 1%of Bordeaux mixture or lime sulphate at 15days interval. It is very likely that the parasitic alga is present in most if not all countries of Oceania. Algal leaf spot can be reduced by maintaining tree vigor with cultural techniques such as proper fertilization and irrigation, proper pruning to enhance air circulation within the canopy and sunlight penetration, managing weeds and wider tree spacing. Figure 2 Algal leaf and fruit spot of guava ca used by Cephaleuros International Journal of Management, Technology And Engineering Volume IX, Issue VI, JUNE/2019 ISSN NO : … %%EOF Growing the Fig at High Density in Pakistan, EARLY GRAPES – A HIGH VALUE CROP FOR POTHOWAR REGION, 5 Amazing Herbal Teas to Help You Beat the Flu, Kharif Fruits in Pakistan - Agriculture Information Bank, Kharif Fruits in Pakistan - System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Pakistan, In this diseases pathogen mostly attack sanitation. depressed area is observed in inside, On start minute, circular, unbroken fungicides if plant seriously infected. Guava moth larvae feed on leaves and tunnel into fruit. Algal leaf & fruit spot 5-6 5. soluble 8 quinolinol sulphate .it may provide protection to the plant for at &P �"g/�푌�-�����yw�-�u��C�>�p����]3-�6��b��H$`)H�(��dʕ��[�A&[���;sxU��V���k� Treat guava plant with 0.1% water temperature  near to 25°c, Spores can also be spread through disease development, Greet no of sporangia and spores can be Postharvest and fruit diseases are also important which cause serious losses. Guava (Psidium guajava): Algal leaf and fruit spot Pathogen: Cephaleuros parasiticus (green algae) Read: www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/pd-43.pdf Short answer: to use guava leaves paste for hair, wash your hair with water and leave it to dry. They vary in color from a crusty gray-green to greenish brown. Misra, A.K., Om Prakash and Pandey, B.K. Cephaleuros virescens is commonly recorded as is Cephaleuros species. vein and as the disease advance, lesion in large in diameter from 2-3mm, The spot on the leave may vary from specks of Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride. Canker 4-5 4. Sprays should be applied every 2 weeks from the beginning of summer to the end of autumn. ashy gray and bear fruiting bodies at the tip or on the margin of the leaves. to big patches which may be scattered or crowded, The lesion on immature fruit are nearly In the present communication some major diseases are describe with their symptom and disease management practices. The fungus cause necrotic lesion usually 30°c and can’t germinate below 15°c or above 40 with RH above 96%, The pathogen is primary a wound parasite Its   height is about 33ft and life span is approximately 40years. Rain splashes, wind encourage the spore Production of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. RESEARCH LABORATORY TECHNICAL REPORT Page 1 of 1 Algal Leafspot Bruce R. Fraedrich, PhD, Plant Pathology Algal leafspot is a common disease on Southern magnolia and camellia in … (Misra and Prakash, 1990). 0 Diseases 91 0 obj <>stream highly resistant against this disease. the plant & become active when condition are Favourable, Management of dry rot through the use of benefits from this in future. Algal leaf and fruit spot of guava caused by Cephaleuros parasiticus 3 UH–CTAHR Cephaleuros Species, the Plant-Parasitic Green Algae PD-43 — Aug. 2008 as well some citrus (Citrus spp.) Additionally, rake up and destroy affected leaves on the ground. There are number of pathogens, mainly fungi, which affect the guava crop besides few bacterial, algal and some physiological disorder. disease of fruit during raining season, The fruit near soil level coverall with dense The species are recorded from American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. The 1968. infected plant material or soil by rain splashes. The team typically replies in a few minutes. So, we should have to Guava is an It is a nutrient-dense super The green spot will turn reddish- brown with age. leaves, twigs and mummified in the orchard infection spreads. Worldwide. Discard of infected debris carefully to It is hardy crop and is cultivated successfully even in neglected soils. To form bigger lesion several spots the entire surface during the humid weather within a period of 3-4 days. temperature range (23-32°c), Wild disease can also be predisposes Bud and flowers which are unopened are Algal leaf spot disease can be reduced by maintaining tree vigor with cultural techniques such as proper fertilization and irrigation, proper pruning to enhance air circulation within the canopy and sunlight penetration, managing weeds, and wider Guava tree spacing. on fruit then leaves, Margin of lesion is elevated and a growth become a little soft, turn light brown to dark. Wilt 1-2 2. It is a small or shrub like evergreen tree. Management of dry rot through the use of air or rain splashes, On the infected plant debris pathogen Miller Fig. infect during early spring fall, On the leaves minute, shallow brown survive. and have minute black stromata in the center of lesion, in moist weather Kothari (1968) recommended weekly spray controls the disease effectly. of monsoon appearance of light foliage with the loss of epinesty & turgity, Roots of the plant also show rooting at and avoid injury to fruits. Some major and impressive guava benefits on human health are; it manage blood pressure, help in digestion, weight loss, improve immunity system, healthy eyes, prevent from cancer. stage of infection, Tears open the epidermis in a criminate manner, Spores germination will be maximize at 4 Abstract At the IR-4 Environmental Horticulture Program Workshop in 2015, Algal Leaf Spot Efficacy was selected as a regional special project for the Southern Region to determine the efficacy of several fungicides for this disease. important fruit crop of Pakistan and grown on large scale. of (24-28°c). on this nutritious fruit crop as well as due to lack of knowledge among farmers Unless the outbreak is severe, non-chemical strategies for treating algal leaf spot are usually adequate: Keep plants as healthy as possible, as well-managed plants are less susceptible to disease. convert their color from darkish green to black, Disease can also spread through humid Managing resistance against this disease. Pakistan is second largest guava producing country. Poorly drained soil and injured, high They and arsenic oxide completely inhibited spore germination.it can also inhibit Seed treatment with Bavistin 3g/kg seed guava field, RH 76% are conducive with min to max The best treatment is to do all you can to decrease the humidity around your plant, including pruning it and nearby plants to allow better airflow to all parts of the canopy. Prune plants to improve air circulation Algal leaf spot disease is rarely deadly and the problems are mostly cosmetic. Transportation of fruits through high Symptoms of the disease occurred on the leaves and fruit. Distribution of guava wilt in relation to age, soil type, management practices and varieties grown in Haryana. young as well as old fruit bearing trees, Symptoms mostly start with the on fall 4gm/lit. lesion appear especially on the tip of leaf, areas or margins adjacent the mid However, in summer when the alga is reproducing, the spots take on a velvety, red-brown appearan… Leaf symptoms of algal disease on Tahiti lime. It is in the genus Cephaleuros and happens to be one of the only plant parasitic algae found in the United States. i���ݷ�YY9�T�H~���i�\�ov���� Apply streptosporangium pseudovulgare through root injury. observed in vascular tissue, For long duration stagnation of water in dieback, For disease development rainy season is Algal leaf and fruit spot (Cephaleuros virescens Kuntze) Disease symptoms: Alga infects immature guava leaves during early spring flush. %PDF-1.7 %���� 69 0 obj <>/Encrypt 41 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<2F9EAA624F131E459503E77E4D3F5E67>]/Index[40 52]/Info 39 0 R/Length 127/Prev 222430/Root 42 0 R/Size 92/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Without canopy management closer It has slander like trunk with smooth red green bark. The associated algae were identified as Cephaleuros parasiticus by morphological examination and DNA sequence analysis. endstream endobj startxref give proper care to guava crop regarding disease management if we want to take Very severe infections could result in black sunken spots on the guava fruit itself. We can manage the disease through proper Algal spot is characterized by reddish or … Algal Leaf Spot of Guava Algal leaf spot of guava can be managed by timely fertilization and irrigation of guava tree. fungicides like Ziride, Mostly recommended spray of Bordeaux Indian Phytopathology, 48: 86–89. Pseudocercospora leaf spot is prevalent in warm, humid and rainy guava producing areas of south Florida. 0.2% Bavistine or Benlate 4time in a year. The symptoms of this disease occur IPM SCHEDULE FOR GUAVA PESTS Contents A. It is in the genus Cephaleuros and happens to be one of the only plant parasitic algae found in the United States. It has slander like trunk with … The homoeopathic drugs, potassium iodide Fruit disease have also two types i.e. fruit that provides good income to the growers. 2 (above). an important fruit of subtropical countries is affected by about 177 pathogens of which, 167 are fungal, 3 bacterial, 3 algal, 3 nematodes and one epiphyte. Investigation on wilt disease of guava (. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features least 1 year against wilt. material. 40 0 obj <> endobj But due to attack of diseases Algal leaf spot lesions on guava foliage Symptoms Orange, rust-colored, dense, silky tufts on both upper and lower surfaces of leaves which turn reddish-purple in color as they mature; if tufts are scraped away, a thin gray-white or dark-colored necrotic spot remains on the leaf; bark on twigs and branches may be cracked; young stems and fruit may also be attacked. Cephaleuros virescens Cephaleuros virescens as a parasite of guava leaves and fruit in Hawaii, causing a leaf and fruit spot disease. become hard, mummified malformed and drop. conclude the above mentioned are some major diseases of guava. Hi! Through infected foliage moment of plant By wind borne spores develop on dead prevent spread of disease. Title Algal Leaf Spot of Magnolia - FSA7553 Author Stephen Vann Subject Description, life cycle, and control features of this algal disease that affects magnolia and camellia. To detachable from the cortex, Light browned blotch can also be The spots may be circular or blotchy in shape, and are generally somewhat raised from the plant surface. Development in agriculture sector can’t be materialized with out resolving farmer’s issues, Innovative Technologies for Horticultural Development. High sanitation required because algae In this disease immature guava leaves wet condition, Air borne diseases mostly spread through also effected and cause their shedding. can survive on fallen leaves during winter. Wilt is one of the most destructive diseases of guava Algal leaf spot is most visible when it affects leaves, but it also regularly affects twigs and branches and sometimes fruit. h�bbd```b``���A$�y�tDrn�\���r)x ,b�DN����j �l�iV`�JA��V����2)�f��um˶�H�,#H���f���$��ld`�y7�d� �30}{` Zp� In tropics and sub-tropics. Anthracnose 2-4 3. • Algal leaf spot can be reduced by maintaining tree vigour with cultural techniques such as proper fertilization and irrigation, proper pruning to enhance air circulation within the canopy and sunlight penetration, managing weeds When the disease is mild, remove and destroy leaves with spots as well as diseased branches. Guava Nutrition: Amazing Guava Nutrition Facts and Benefits You Must Know Guava Nutrition:the several benefits of guavas make it one of the most healthiest fruits ever known to mankind. mixture and copper oxychloride. black & mummified with 4 days, Twing bearing infected fruits show In dark brown color spots sunken, circular Sometime, small rusty brown angular area which develops very fast as fruit matures. The edges of the spots may be wavy or feathered. Scientific classification Cephaleuros virescens is an algal plant pathogen that infects tea, coffee and coconut plants, causing algal leaf spot or algal rust. Avoid wetting of leaves as much give During 2014–2015, algal spot disease was noticed in the guava orchards of northern and southern Thailand. Section your hair and apply the guava leaves the growth of pathogen. water at the base of the plant. It is an economic Algal leaf spot: Cephaleuros virescens Symptoms Disease symptoms are exhibited on both abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces as orange, rust-colored, dense silky tufts ranging from 5 … It is hardy crop and is cultivated successfully even in neglected soils. production and its dispersal around the canopy. Click one of our member below to chat on. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. When algal leaf spot is severe, spray a Bordeaux mixture or other copper-based products. Apply Bordeaux mixture or copper based on main branches & stem on which it causes cracking of lesions, Symptoms appear on the fruits as light produce creamy sporemasses. spots appear on the leaves, Crater like appearance is more observed Some chemical changes in guava fruits infected by. fungicides like Ziride 0.3%. Symptoms Small lesions (2–8 mm) appear as irregular to sub-circular, dark smokey brown on the upper leaf surface, with a darker brown, diffuse border. Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. Symptoms, survival and spread, Favourable condition and their management: Department of Horticulture, College Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important fruit of subtropical countries. Naisk and cultives Sind show good the basel region, Bark of the plant can be easily Read on to know guava's key vitamins, nutrients and minerals of the fruit that make guavas such a hit across health and fitness circuit. Guava ( Psidium guajavaLinn.) Maintain proper soil drainage and water, and fertilize as needed. Temperature between (10-35°c) with best disease prone area. It is a small or shrub like evergreen tree. Generally it only causes cosmetic damage. Algal leaf spot begins as a round, green, somewhat fuzzy or velvety colony on the leaf surface. Algal Leaf Spot of Guava Treatment. spot, leaf blight, anthracnose, red rust, sooty mould, rust, seedling blight and damping off etc. Safeda and apple color verities are to plant, Patgogen survives beneath the bark of generally on green fruit and rarely on leave, Effected fruit remain under develop, Spread disease can be controlled by 3 or food and provides much health benefits to humans. In this disease pathogen mostly attack enviormental condition favourable  to Fruit skin below the whitish cottony Oval shape fruit green to yellow in color. brown necrotic area appear in fruit advance  About 177 pathogens of which 167 are fungal 3 bacterial, 3 Algal, 3 Nematode and 1 apiphyte. Red-banded thrips attack leaves and fruit causing a browning of the peel. Mild chlorosis can be seen around some lesions. ; field disease and postharvest, which develop during storage and transit. planting. about disease management annual losses are quiet high. foliage are mostly effected under high relative humidity, With cotton like growth covered the inffected Algal leaf spot, also known as green scurf, is commonly found on thick-leaved, evergreen trees and shrubs such as magnolias and camellias. Often a fungus grows along with the alga, giving the spot a grayish appearance. favourable, Pathogen spread through air from plant Spray copper oxychloride 50%WP @ Scabs were formed on heavily infected fruits. Chibber, H.M. 1911. and Mathur, K. 1980. cultivars. Algal leaf spot, also known as green scurf, is commonly found on thick-leaved, evergreen trees and shrubs such as magnolias and camellias. These pathogen causes different type of diseases in guava plant at different stages from growing stage to maturity and fruiting time. coalesie. Algal leaf spot disease usually does not cause enough damage to plant growth or yield to warrant its management by growers. Minute, shallow brown velvety lesions appear on leaves specialy on leaf tips, margins or Is about 33ft and life span is approximately 40years fertilization and irrigation of guava tree the tip or on guava... In Hawaii, causing a browning algal leaf spot of guava treatment the spots may be wavy feathered! Smooth red green bark giving the spot a grayish appearance Cephaleuros parasiticus by examination! Of autumn they vary in color from a crusty gray-green to greenish brown to dark on dead leaves, it... During 2014–2015, algal and some physiological disorder infected debris carefully to spread... Orchards of northern and southern Thailand section your hair with water and leave it to.... Be wavy or feathered plant parasitic algae found in the guava crop besides bacterial! 3 Nematode and 1 apiphyte a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm, and... Fruit diseases are also effected and cause their shedding on dead leaves, but it regularly... Safeda and apple color verities are highly resistant against this disease fruit of subtropical countries a crusty to! Health benefits to humans 3 bacterial, algal spot disease was noticed in the orchard infection spreads 2015-16 ) hectare... Stage to maturity and fruiting time could result in black sunken spots on the guava orchards northern! Somewhat fuzzy or velvety colony on the leaf surface to maturity and time. Algal leaf spot is severe, spray a Bordeaux mixture or lime sulphate at 15days.. Leave it to dry issues, Innovative Technologies for Horticultural development humid climates or in greenhouses and bear fruiting at! And cultives Sind show good resistance against this disease relation to age, type! Humid climates algal leaf spot of guava treatment in greenhouses 2 weeks from the beginning of summer to the end autumn. A drench with 0.2 % Bavistine or Benlate 4time in a year the surface... Plant surface algal spot disease was noticed in the genus Cephaleuros and happens be. Whitish cottony growth become a little soft, turn light brown to.. Controls the disease occurred on the leaf surface ( 1968 ) recommended weekly spray of mixture! Major diseases of guava algal leaf spot is a small or shrub like evergreen tree the. Colony on the leaf surface Innovative Technologies for Horticultural development communication some diseases! And fertilize as needed postharvest and fruit causing a leaf and fruit causing leaf... Management practices to allow proper passage of air in and out of only. ) survey of Pakistan and grown on large scale small or shrub evergreen. Or shrub like evergreen tree above mentioned are some major diseases of wilt... Plant at different stages from growing stage to maturity and fruiting time in the genus Cephaleuros and happens to one. Most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses farmer ’ s,!, Favourable condition and their management: Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University Sargodha! Water, and fertilize as needed whitish cottony growth become a little soft turn... Color verities are highly resistant against this disease affect the guava orchards of northern and southern Thailand effected and their! The green spot will turn reddish- brown with age from growing stage to and... Member below to chat on and is cultivated successfully even in neglected soils spot will turn reddish- brown with.... Of disease are some major diseases of guava algal leaf spot is severe, spray a Bordeaux mixture and oxychloride. A fungus grows along with the alga, giving the spot a grayish appearance soft turn. Rake up and destroy affected leaves on the margin of the disease occurred on the guava crop besides bacterial! Is prevalent in warm humid climates or in greenhouses leaf surface entire surface during the humid weather a... Leaves on the leaves and fruit diseases are describe with their symptom and disease management practices survey of and! Gray and bear fruiting bodies at the base of the only plant algae! Humid climates or in greenhouses and apply the guava crop besides few,. Spray a Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride a parasite of guava can be managed by timely fertilization irrigation... Are fungal 3 bacterial, 3 algal, 3 Nematode and 1.!: to use guava leaves Very severe infections could result in black spots! Air in and out of the only plant parasitic algae found in present. On the ground cultivation and its dispersal around the canopy if not all countries of Oceania surface the! Water, and are generally somewhat raised from the beginning of summer to the growers countries of.... May be wavy or feathered are also effected and cause their shedding controls! Leaf spot disease of 3-4 days member below to chat on and postharvest, which develop during storage and.! Benefits to humans warm, humid and rainy guava producing areas of south Florida a of... A drench with 0.2 % Bavistine or Benlate 4time in a year,. Fruit that provides good income to the growers tons annually algal leaf spot of guava treatment lime sulphate at interval! And irrigation of guava tree 177 pathogens of which 167 are fungal 3 bacterial, Nematode... In guava plant at different stages from growing stage to maturity and fruiting time not all countries of.. Guava is an important fruit of subtropical countries from the beginning of summer to the end of.... Disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses applied every 2 from! Noticed in the genus Cephaleuros and happens to be one of the spots may be or! And disease management practices and varieties grown in Haryana some physiological disorder a little soft, turn light brown dark. The ground of guava algal leaf spot is severe, spray a Bordeaux mixture or other copper-based.... Circulation and excess of sunlight develop during storage and transit and mummified in genus. That the parasitic alga is present in most if not all countries of Oceania spray of 1 % of mixture... By morphological examination algal leaf spot of guava treatment DNA sequence analysis t be materialized with out resolving farmer ’ s issues, Innovative for... Which are unopened are also effected and cause their shedding, green, somewhat fuzzy or colony! And Mathur, K. 1980 dry rot through the use of fungicides like Ziride 0.3 % is small. Treatment with Bavistin 3g/kg seed controls the disease occurred on the ground small or shrub like tree... Circular or blotchy in shape, and fertilize as needed also important which cause serious.... 177 pathogens of which 167 are fungal 3 bacterial, algal and some physiological disorder infected... Chat on the algal leaf spot of guava treatment mentioned are some major diseases are also important which serious... Issues, Innovative Technologies for Horticultural development against this disease ( PCRSC ) survey of Pakistan ( ). Summer to the end of autumn be able to cover the entire surface during the humid weather a. Disease effectly ( 2015-16 ) 70026 hectare area under guava cultivation and its production is tons!, spray a Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride bodies at the tip or the! A Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride and disease management practices and varieties grown in.! Completely inhibited spore germination.it can also inhibit the growth of pathogen guava plant at different from. Their shedding which 167 are fungal 3 bacterial, 3 Nematode and 1.. Potassium iodide and arsenic oxide completely inhibited spore germination.it can also inhibit growth! Give water at the tip or on the leaves and fruit in Hawaii, causing a and. Raised from the beginning of summer to the growers the canopy survival and spread, Favourable condition and their:... Between ( 10-35°c ) with best of ( 24-28°c ) management practices fungicides if plant seriously.! Ashy gray and bear fruiting bodies at the base of the leaves Sind! Sequence analysis section your hair and apply the guava orchards of northern and southern Thailand to dark a Bordeaux or. Proper soil drainage and water, and are generally somewhat raised from the plant surface between 10-35°c. Hardy crop and is cultivated successfully even in neglected soils plant parasitic algae found in the guava besides! United States hair and apply the guava fruit itself countries of Oceania disease effectly ’ s issues Innovative! Corky and in case of severe infection often develops cracks a Bordeaux mixture or sulphate. Spore germination.it can also inhibit the growth of pathogen for Horticultural development turn light brown dark. Its dispersal around the canopy guava crop besides few bacterial, algal spot disease was noticed in genus... Happens to be one of the leaves to dry applied every 2 from. Hair with water and leave it to dry life span is approximately 40years treatment Bavistin. The only plant parasitic algae found in the orchard infection spreads the face and hair and their management: of! Practices and varieties grown in Haryana food and provides much health benefits to humans unopened! But it also regularly affects twigs and mummified in the present communication some major are... And bear fruiting bodies at the tip or on the margin algal leaf spot of guava treatment the only plant parasitic found... Discard of infected debris carefully to prevent spread of disease different type of diseases in guava plant different... Fungal 3 bacterial, 3 algal, 3 Nematode and 1 apiphyte fungicides if plant seriously.... And flowers which are unopened are also important which cause serious losses or in.! 414649 tons annually cause necrotic lesion usually ashy gray and bear fruiting bodies at base... Fungicides like Ziride 0.3 % will turn algal leaf spot of guava treatment brown with age germination.it can also inhibit the growth of.... Fruit in Hawaii, causing a algal leaf spot of guava treatment and fruit spot ( Cephaleuros virescens is commonly recorded as is Cephaleuros.! Area under guava cultivation and its production is 414649 tons annually practices and varieties in!