Accessed via Internet Archive on August 30, 2015. Leading the cavalrymen was Lieutenant Horatio S. Bingham. I was able to glean a lot of information about the happenings at the Fort as well as what travel was like for the women who Plot Summary | Add Synopsis Powell returned safely, having followed orders and accomplished his mission. He arrived at Fort Laramie late in the evening on December 25 during a full-dress Christmas ball, and staggered, exhausted, into the party to deliver his message. [15]. Indian warriors approached the soldiers and taunted them. The U.S. military mission was intended to protect travelers on the Bozeman Trail. She wrote My Army Life and the Fort Phil Kearney Massacre forty years after the fort was abandoned. [26], Estimates of Indian casualties vary widely. The visitor's center has some displays, a film, and a model. The Fetterman Massacre was a significant battle during Red Cloud's War on December 21, 1866, between soldiers of the U.S. Army based at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming, and the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians. F. H. BROWN, who was massacred by the Indians near Fort Phil, Kearny, was the son of MATTHEW BROWN, Esq., of Toledo, Ohio. It is a necessary addition to other material on Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Bozeman Trail." [6], In June 1866, Colonel Henry B. Carrington advanced from Fort Laramie into the Powder River country, now the hunting grounds of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Northern Arapaho. University of Oklahoma Press; 1st edition (March 23, 2017). [7]:147–150, Although he had no experience fighting Indians, Fetterman criticized Carrington's defensive posture and expressed contempt about the Indian foes. There is also a Fetterman Street and Fetterman Drive in Laramie, Wyoming. Massacre at Fort Phil Kearney On December 21, 1866, eighty men under the command of Captain William Fetterman were surrounded and killed by an estimated force of over 1000 Sioux warriors in what would known as the Fetterman Massacre. [16] The Lakota saw this as the good medicine that won the battle and thereafter called it the "Battle of the Hundred-in-the-Hands". Our old chiefs thought to show their friendship and good will, when they allowed this dangerous snake in our midst. It is an insult to the spirits of our ancestors. Fetterman and his entire force of 80 men were killed, including Lt. George Grummond, first husband of the author. Sheltered by the smooth Sullivant Hills that slide into Lodge Trail Ridge, this innocuous fold of land was the scene of … All 81 men under the command of Captain William J. Fetterman were then killed by the Native American warriors. The snows were deep and Jim Bridger advised him that the Indians would hole up for the winter. Within a short time, the signal came that the wood train was no longer under attack. Grummond probably was killed at this point, after he had personally decapitated at least one warrior with his saber before being overwhelmed by the others. She said these orders were given twice, the second time by Carrington from the sentry walk after ordering the soldiers to halt as they left the front gate of the fort. [7]:209–210, Lurid newspaper stories blamed Carrington for the Fetterman disaster. Crazy Horse was put in charge of the attack, while the older men acted as councilors. [7]:171–173, The morning of December 21, 1866, was clear and cold. They experienced great success; in less than half an hour, they had defeated nearly 100 men under Captain Fetterman, who had been cleverly drawn out of the fort by a ruse. Less than an hour later, Carrington's pickets on Pilot Hill signaled by flag that the wagon train was under attack. Fetterman Massacre European-American immigrants traveling along the Bozeman Trail passed through Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming. During the movement, Lieutenant Grummond and Bingham with several others became separated from Carrington, who was surrounded by about 100 Indian warriors. Almost 90 soldiers were detailed to guard the wagon train. The bodies of Fetterman and his soldiers were found more than half a mile beyond the summit of the ridge. Others who appeared in the segment were Richard Egan and Phyllis Avery as Colonel Henry Carrington and h… Meanwhile, Carrington dispatched another group of 42 soldiers to join Ten Eyck. 66–67 and Van de Logt, Mark, "New Perspectives on the Fetterman Fight", https://archive.org/details/historyofwyoming00hudsrich, List of battles won by Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Find a grave memorial of US Soldiers who died at Fort Kearny, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fetterman_Fight&oldid=994505578, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Company C: Second Lieutenant George W. Grummond†, Sergeant James Bakerâ€, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 01:54. This FAQ is empty. Stands In Timber, John and Margot Liberty: Papers relating to Talks and Councils held with the Indians in Dakota and Montana Territories in the Years 1866-1869. Carrington prepared for an attack on the fort the evening after the Fetterman Fight, ordering all his men to stand watch, three to a porthole. [10] Several of Carrington's junior officers pressed him to take the offensive. According to Margret Irvin Carrington in her book Absaraka: Home of the Crows. He had a distinguished Civil War record as a combat officer, but he had been court-martialed for drunkenness and abuse of civilians and was known as a bigamist. Carrington ordered a relief party composed of 49 infantrymen of the 18th Infantry and 27 mounted troopers of the 2nd Cavalry under the command of Captain James Powell. [7]:169–170, Red Cloud and other Indian leaders, encouraged by their successes, decided to undertake a large military operation against Fort Kearny before winter snows forced them to break up their large village on the Tongue River and disperse. His pickets on Pilot Hill signaled that an Army wood train was being attacked 4 miles west of the fort. The Fetterman Fight, also known as the Fetterman Massacre or the Battle of the Hundred-in-the-Hands or the Battle of a Hundred Slain,[1] was a battle during Red Cloud's War on December 21, 1866, between a confederation of the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and a detachment of the United States Army, based at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming. Carrington assumed that Fetterman intended to approach the Indians attacking the wood train from their rear. [20] The Indians took about 20 minutes to kill the infantry and another 20 to dispatch the cavalry. p. 123. On the 21st of December 1866, the Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors lured Captain William Fetterman and his men into an ambush attack at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming to retaliate for trespassing treaty lands. We've curated a list of lesser-known films to help you explore the space-time continuum from the comfort of your couch. On November 25, 1866, Carrington's superior, General Philip St. George Cooke, ordered him to take the offensive in response to the Indians' "murderous and insulting attacks". Fort Phil Kearny Massacre Property of the Wyoming State Museum, A-1999.9.157 . Fort Kearny was built along the Bozeman Trail, although the establishment of a fort here was never agreed to by Red Cloud at the 1866 council at Fort Laramie. [1] A total of 81 American soldiers and civilians died in the battle. [21], The Indians had few guns and fought mostly with bows and arrows, spears, and war clubs. According to a Cheyenne informant named White Elk, who was interviewed as he walked the battlefield 48 years after the event, the Indians had chosen 10 warriors as decoys to tempt Fetterman into the ambush: two Arapaho, two Cheyenne, and two from each of the three Lakota bands present: the Oglala, Brulé, and Miniconjou. White Elk said more Indians were present than at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, which would indicate an Indian force of considerably more than 1,000 men. Lieutenant Bisbee, commanding the wagon train, sensibly took cover instead of pursuing the bait.[7]:150–156. The army used a treaty right to "establish roads, military and other post". "Indian Perspectives on the Bozeman Trail", Vaughn, p. 72–80; Grinnell, pp. Massacre at Fort Phil Kearny (1966). In 1868, Fort Phil Kearny was abandoned, and in November of that year, Red Cloud signed a peace agreement with the US. On December 19, the Indians attacked another wood train. He says that other than Carrington's accusations, "there is no evidence indicating that Fetterman was anything but a professional officer and a perfect gentleman" with a distinguished combat record. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Powell remained behind. Everyone knew why special emphasis was given to these orders. Depicts Richard Egan and Don Taylor in a scene from the made for TV movie "Massacre at Fort Phile Kearny". On December 26, the soldiers buried the bodies of Fetterman, his officers, and his men in a common trench. Directed by Tonino Valerii (MY NAME IS NOBODY). University of New Mexico Press (July 16, 2010). 206–209. The mutilated bodies of Bingham and a sergeant were found several hours later. Another officer of the 18th, Lieutenant George W. Grummond, a known critic of Carrington, led the cavalry, which had been leaderless since Bingham's death in early December. [31], Calitri also suggests controversy about Grummond. You have heard the sound of the white soldier’s ax upon the Little Piney. Carrington reemphasized to his soldiers his policy of caution until reinforcements and additional horses and supplies arrived from Fort Laramie. Yet before the ashes of the council fire are cold, the Great Father is building his forts among us. See, for example, discussions of Indian tactics in Ambrose, pp. Grummond eventually was seen approaching with seven Indians in hot pursuit, though he managed to reach safety with Carrington and Fetterman. [7]:173–176, According to Carrington, his orders were clear. Banner, WY: 1993. Those Indians and others harassed Fetterman as he climbed Lodge Trail Ridge and disappeared out of sight of the fort. An investigation absolved him of blame, but the report was not made public. The Fetterman Fight, also known as the Fetterman Massacre or the Battle of the Hundred-in-the-Hands or the Battle of a Hundred Slain, was a battle during Red Cloud's War on December 21, 1866, between a confederation of the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and a detachment of the United States Army, based at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming. The author was the wife of Lt. Grummond that was killed in the Fetterman massacre and she speaks at length about her arrival at the Fort, the times leading up to the massacre and what happened after. [7]:198, 205, General Cooke, on receipt of Carrington's distress message, immediately ordered that he be relieved of command by Brigadier General Henry W. Wessells, who arrived safely at Fort Kearny on January 16 with two companies of cavalry and four of infantry. The dead soldiers had been stripped naked and mutilated. They dispatched the 18th Infantry of the U.S. Army to Fort Phil Kearny, led by Colonel Henry B. Carrington. Universal Studios - 100 Universal City Plaza, Universal City, California, USA. [4] About 400 of his soldiers and most of the civilians were stationed at Fort Kearny. He saw no Indians during his ride. [23][24] In his report to his superiors, Carrington listed what was discovered at the battlefield the next day: eyes torn out and laid on rocks, noses and ears cut off, teeth chopped out, brains taken out and placed on rocks, hands and feet cut off, and private parts severed. [25] The last trooper to die in the battle may have been Adolph Metzger, a bugler who used his instrument as a weapon until it was battered shapeless. Carrington's guide, famous mountain man Jim Bridger, was more succinct: "These soldiers don't know anything about fighting Indians". Carrington's case was that Fetterman was arrogant, insubordinate, and inexperienced in fighting Indians and that he had given Fetterman explicit orders not to venture beyond the summit of Lodge Trail Ridge. The tragic events associated with Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Wagon Box Fight form one of the most dramatic chapters in the history of the Indian Wars.For two bloody years from 1866 to 1868, the Sioux Indians, bitter and opposing the invasion of their hunting grounds by prospectors bound over the Bozeman Trail to the Montana goldfields, fought back viciously. On November 22, Fetterman himself almost fell into an Indian ambush. Washington, 1910, p. 69. Carrington gathered together about 75 men under Captain Ten Eyck and sent them out on foot to search for Fetterman. The orders were given in front of Lieutenant Grummond's house, next the colonel's, and those who were present heard them repeated with distinctness and special urgency. [32], Also, in the case of Captain Tenodor Ten Eyck, who was sent by Carrington to support or rescue Fetterman when the sounds of battle were heard at Fort Kearny, the captain was accused[33] of having been slow to march to the aid of Fetterman, taking a longer route to reach him. However, the Indians saw through it and instead stampeded a herd of the cattle on the bank of the Powder River opposite Fetterman's intended trap. “Massacre” references the 1866 Indian battle with a company of US troops under Captain William Fetterman on the Wyoming plains near Fort Phil Kearny (spelled Kearney by the author). Soldiers were told that in the last extremity they were to retreat to the magazine. Another four soldiers had been wounded after they pursued another Indian decoy into an ambush. A group of 10 warriors, including Crazy Horse, acted to lure a detachment of U.S. soldiers into an ambush. Carrington sent Captain Powell, his most cautious officer, out of the fort to relieve the wood train with a cavalry company and mounted infantry. “Hear ye, Dakotas!” he exclaimed. Phillips accomplished the 236-mile ride to Fort Laramie in four days. The Indians in the valley slowly dispersed and disappeared. Captains Fetterman and Brown are reputed to have committed suicide by shooting each other in the head to avoid capture, but the official army autopsy report gives a throat wound as the cause of Fetterman's death. Red Cloud was born in 1821 into the Oglala tribe - one of seven Lakota tribes, known by non-Natives as the… More than four decades later, Frances Carrington, Henry’s second wife, repeated the boast attributed to Fetterman almost verbatim in her 1910 book My Army Life: A Soldier’s Wife at Fort Phil Kearny. On the bitterly cold morning of December 21, about 2,000 Natives concealed themselves along the road just north of Fort Phil Kearney. Because of the steepness of the hill and the ice and snow, the Indians were slowed in their attempt to come in close quarters with the cavalry. Lieutenant Wands was also instructed to repeat them. Carrington left Fort Kearny on January 23 with his wife and the other women and children, including the pregnant wife of the deceased Lieutenant Grummond. Western with James Coburn, Bud Spencer and Telly Savalas. Only six of the 81 soldiers died of gunshot wounds. Carrington reported that he had killed 10 Indians, but both Fetterman and he were sobered by the shortcomings in organization and discipline of their largely inexperienced soldiers. Even if he had taken the shortest route, Ten Eyck was highly unlikely to have arrived in time to assist Fetterman. The dispatch from Colonel Henry B. Carrington at Fort Phil Kearny stated that three officers, 92 men, and two citizens had been massacred four days earlier near the fort. Rather, they struck at the rear and flanks of an opponent, using mounted mobility to probe for weaknesses and attempt to cause disorganization and panic, backing off if they encountered a stout defense, and closing in for the kill when they could do so with little risk of heavy casualties.[29]. "[7]:225 Indian sovereignty over the Powder River country, however, only endured for eight years. The investigation noted that 12 companies of soldiers were stationed at Fort Laramie in a region at peace, while at Fort Kearny Carrington had only five companies in a region at war. Indian accounts credit a Lakota warrior named American Horse with killing Fetterman by slashing his throat. Bingham and Fetterman were Civil War veterans, and Fetterman had a distinguished war record. [citation needed] The cavalry continued its retreat, halting to fight in a flat area on the ridge 400 yards north of where the infantry lay dead. Fetterman had been garrisoned at nearby Ft Phil Kearny, one of three posts along the Bozeman Trail in present-day Wyoming. That afternoon, wagons were sent to bring the bodies back to Fort Kearny. The decoy trick had worked on December 6 and they decided to try it again, this time with a force adequate to destroy any group of soldiers sent to chase them. A dramatic retelling of the 1866 Sioux victory where 81 soldiers were killed. The Lakota, the Cheyenne, and the Arapaho accepted it as such. Both had been assigned to Fort Kearny from the 18th Infantry's headquarters at Fort Laramie. Colonel Henry Carrington runs a severe command but finds his authority challenged by the more likeable Captain William Fetterman. They braved temperatures as low as -38°F (-39°C) during the journey to Fort Laramie. My husband is particularly interested in the Wagon Box fight which is a satellite site of the fort. Some historians interpreted that as a tribute to his bravery in standing alone against several armed enemies. At Fort Phil Kearny In an idyllic location 20 miles south of Sheridan WY, a gentle ridge huddles between the Bighorn Mountains and plains to the east. Kearny: Second-Lieut. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. View production, box office, & company info. A grand attack had been planned with care and nearly every well-known Sioux chief had agreed to strike the invaders. [14] On leaving the fort, however, Fetterman took the Lodge Ridge Trail northward rather than the trail northwest toward the pinery where the wagon train was. [17][18] Indian armies rarely had a single leader or a command structure with Red Cloud as one of those who planned much of the attack,[18] but Hump (High Backbone), a Miniconjou, was the prominent leader in the fighting. Just before the battle, Red Cloud called for the Lakotas' most powerful "half-man", a hermaphrodite who was believed to have special powers, to give advice from the butte overlooking the proposed ambush site. On December 20, Carrington turned down Fetterman and Captain Brown's proposal that they lead 50 civilian employees in a raid on the Lakota village on the Tongue River, about 50 miles distant. He advanced along a narrow ridge leading to a flat area along Peno Creek. By claiming seniority as a brevet lieutenant colonel, Fetterman asked for and was given command of the relief party. He doubled the number of guards for the wood trains and kept the 50 serviceable horses the fort still possessed – having lost many in Indian raids – saddled and ready to sally from dawn to dark. The battlefield was examined briefly and the bodies of soldiers removed quickly. Their bodies were found in a small circle, huddled together for defense. Red Cloud was determined to face any odds rather than bow to the invaders. Fetterman said, "This Indian war has become a hand-to-hand fight requiring the utmost caution." Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site includes a visitor's center with exhibits, videos, a bookstore, and self-guided tours of the fort grounds and outlying sites. The Wagon Box Fight was an engagement on August 2, 1867, in the vicinity of Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming, during Red Cloud's War.A party of 26 US Army soldiers and 6 civilians were attacked by several hundred Lakota Sioux warriors. [7]:185–189, According to Charles Alexander Eastman, in 1866, the Native American's discomfort with the degrading influence of the illegal invaders had peaked. Previous Next (For a day tour covering all historic sites, including the Brinton Museum, consider starting your tour early in the cool of the day at Fort Phil Kearny) TO GET TO FORT PHIL KEARNY FROM LAZY R: Take I-90 headed east for approximately 36 miles to Exit 44. 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