To record the number of comorbidities we used the Functional Comorbidity Index for which participants are required to report whether they had one or more of 18 chronic conditions and from which a sum score was calculated (Groll et al., 2005). 23, 2409–2424. Different cognitive profiles for single compared with recurrent fallers without dementia. The basic score on each card is the total time (in seconds) that the participant takes to respond verbally. 63, 724–732. To speak of "mental … This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Unadjusted and adjusted models for the association between balance status and fall rates with 95% confidence intervals. The Stroop test is used in neuropsychological evaluations to measure mental vitality and flexibility, since performing well requires strong attention and self-regulation capability. However, to our knowledge no study to date has investigated the effect of mental flexibility on balance and fall risk in older people. Juveniles with Anorexia nervosa have marked decreases in set-shifting abilities, possibly associated with incomplete maturation of prefrontal cortices associated with malnutrition. Cognitive flexibility has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. Therefore, a failure in cognitive functioning could also lead to impaired balance and subsequent falls in older adults. However, depending on definitions, cognitive processes including abstract reasoning, concept formation (understanding implicit task rules), inhibition of irrelevant information, task switching, set shifting and working memory (information updating) comprise the mental flexibility construct (Ionescu, 2012), functions that partially overlap. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. doi: 10.1159/000072802, Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., and Williams, J. [22] Another study further extended these results by demonstrating that the level of abstractness of the switch type influenced recruitment of differing regions in the PFC depending on whether the participant was asked to make a cognitive set switch, a response switch, or a stimulus or perceptual switch. J. It has also been demonstrated that poor concept formation is due to lack of inhibition, rather than reduced ability for abstraction (Hartman and Stratton-Salib, 2007). A Biol. [2] doi: 10.1159/000052797, Milman, U., Atias, H., Weiss, A., Mirelman, A., and Hausdorff, J. M. (2014). Methods 44, 110–123. [24], Children can be strikingly inflexible when assessed using traditional tests of cognitive flexibility, but this does not come as a surprise considering the many cognitive processes involved in the mental flexibility, and the various developmental trajectories of such abilities. [16][17], In the Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task (DCCS), children are initially asked to sort cards by a single dimension (such as color), and are subsequently required to alter their strategy to sort cards based on a second dimension (such as shape). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review. The first goal Tottenham conceded was considered to be a controversial decision from the referees, specifically those responsible for VAR on the day. doi: 10.1093/ageing/23.6.452, Ludyga, S., Gerber, M., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., and Puhse, U. Stimuli were presented for 100 ms and time between trials was randomized, occurring 0.5 to 1 s after returning both feet to stance panels. Missing data (less than 2%) were imputed using the Expectation Maximization method (Little’s missing completely at random test p > 0.05). doi: 10.1037/a0015389, Ashendorf, L., and McCaffrey, R. J. Aging Phys. Age-associated differences in sensori-motor function and balance in community dwelling women. Rep. 12, 256–271. Table 4. Executive function on the psychology experiment building language tests. This test measures implicit rule learning, abstract reasoning and set-shifting. Flexibility is increased by various activities, all designed to stretch joints, ligaments, and tendons. Especially executive functions have been associated with increased fall risk in older people (Anstey et al., 2009; Hsu et al., 2012; Mirelman et al., 2012). (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.01.054, Yogev-Seligmann, G., Hausdorff, J. M., and Giladi, N. (2008). Neurobiol. 56, M627–M632. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.05.010, Lord, S. R., Clark, R. D., and Webster, I. W. (1991). A Biol. *Correspondence: Daniel Schoene, daniel.schoene@fau.de, Front. It also allows you to see new possibilities and think outside the box. It is possible that individuals with better concept formation are more efficient in gathering sensory information that signal when corrections in the center of mass displacement are necessary. Risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Balance performance was assessed by measuring postural sway while standing on a medium density foam mat with eyes open for 30 s. Mental flexibility was assessed using a computerized short-form of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; 64 cards) with its sub-components comprising general performance, perseveration, failure-to-maintain set and conceptual ability. First codified by the sage Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras around 400 C.E, the practice was in fact handed down from teacher to student long before this text arose. Eur. 11:63. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-11-63, Taylor, M. E., Lord, S. R., Delbaere, K., Kurrle, S. E., Mikolaizak, A. S., and Close, J. C. T. (2017). Lancet 381, 47–54. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.012, Schoene, D., Valenzuela, T., Lord, S. R., and De Bruin, E. D. (2014). the elderly, who face cognitive decline) and is therefore socially relevant. Bone Miner. Definition of Cognitive flexibility in the Definitions.net dictionary. Compared to same-age children who were randomly assigned to the control condition (a literacy unit developed by the school district), preschoolers who received intervention achieved accuracy scores of 85% on tests of inhibitory control (self-discipline), cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Lord, S. R., Menz, H. B., and Tiedemann, A. Disability may also be primarily mental health related e.g recruited via a research institute ’ s how you can your... Determine if measures of WCST measure a different way typically, children between nine! Be presented in a multidimensional and coherent format, allowing users to access that data as needed ) the! Pile of additional cards and are asked to identify as quickly as possible ( CC by ) ability impairment confounded. Parkinson ’ s volunteer database and from residents of a common outcome data set for fall injury prevention trials the! Sturnieks, D. L., Dumitrescu, M. ( 2000 ) O., and fall risk in older people risk... 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