Clothianidin is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide possessing a thiazolyl ring which has been developed and commercialized by Sumitomo Chemical Takeda Agro Company, Ltd. It also plays a key role helping to prevent the buildup in insect pests of resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, which is a growing problem in parts of Europe. Clothianidin, PESTANAL(R), analytical standard (E)-1-(2-Chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3- methyl-2-nitroguanidine (clothianidin) [45][46] Also in 2012, researchers in Italy published findings that the pneumatic drilling machines that plant corn seeds coated with clothianidin and imidacloprid release large amounts of the pesticide into the air, causing significant mortality in foraging honey bees.[47]. Overseas registration and approved label instructions Clothianidin products are registered for use in the European Union (E.U. Don’t settle for insecticides that give up on control early. <> endobj 12 0 obj Active Ingredient: Active Ingredients: Clothianidin 0.25%, Bifenthrin 0.125% Insecticide Mode of Action: 4A, 3A Insecticide Class: Neonictinoids, Pyrethroids EPA Signal Word: CAUTION / PRECATUIONApplication Rate Range: (see label) Container Size(s): 30 Lbs. Clothianidin and other neonicotinoids were developed to last longer than nicotine, which is more toxic and which breaks down too quickly in the environment. Sugar beet seed treatment is not currently registered. 11 0 obj Key symptoms of CCD include: 1) inexplicable disappearance of the hive’s worker bees; 2) presence of the queen bee and absence of invaders; 3) presence of food stores and a capped brood. Finally, exposure affected workers more strongly than queens. "[7][63] In April 2013, the European Union voted for a two-year restriction on neonicotinoid insecticides. 15 0 obj endobj Neonicotinoids also replaced older pesticides that were harmful to humans and other mammals. As a neonicotinoid type of pesticide, clothianidin attacks the central nervous system of an insect. “Pesticide Fact Sheet Name of Chemical: Clothianidin.” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substnaces, 30 May 2003. Quick overview Arena 0.25 G Granular Clothianidin Insecticide Provides the best control and the longest-lasting residual out there. A�^K%���0�����Ȍ�_�Q�m0���X'VN�Ȓu��y �Q���qf�VR�V�� It is moderately soluble and volatile but has a high potential for leaching to groundwater. Bayer or Takeda) had recently added new uses on the labels, including using the pesticide directly applied to the soil surface/foliage at much higher application rate than as specified in 2003. [34][35], Honey bees and other pollinators are particularly sensitive to clothianidin, as evidenced by the results of laboratory and field toxicity testing and demonstrated in acute poisoning incidents in France and Germany in 2008, and in Canada in 2010 and 2013[citation needed] associated with the planting of corn seeds treated with clothianidin. Talc is used in the vacuum system planters to keep pesticide treated seeds flowing freely and was studied by the investigators since the waste talc can be picked up by the wind, and could spread the pesticide to non-treated areas; they did not however investigate whether and how much pesticide spreads this way. Bayer or Takeda) request field uses involving direct application of clothianidin to the land surface. ��V�hU���ўPK�з{Z(�� ), and seed treatment uses, in which clothianidin coats seeds that take up the pesticide via the roots as the plant grows. Seed treatment uses of clothianidin, corn in particular, have been revoked or suspended in Germany, Italy and Slovenia. d9Qj stream Have the product container or label with you when calling a poison control center or doctor, or going for treatment. It is very persisent in soil and water. Regulatory authorities describe the toxicological database for clothianidin as "extensive", and many studies have been reviewed to support registrations around the globe for this chemical. GROUP4AINSECTICIDE GROUP4AINSECTICIDE �7��.β����V:��(��E�?����&��yOEބ7�&Z�M�M�7�$��/`��6rE����Mv�I�H��'�AP�Ӟ~� Laboratory and field testing revealed that clothianidin shows relatively low toxicity to many test species but is highly or very highly toxic to others. XM�g�P�x]�A����n Get the best control and the longest-lasting residual out there with Arena® Insecticide. Clothianidin is an alternative to organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. Worst-case scenario estimates indicate that if applied at the maximum rate repeatedly over years, clothianidin has the potential to accumulate in the top 15 cm of soil. [3] The Pest Management Regulatory Agency of Canada lists it as "very highly toxic" to aquatic invertebrates, but only slightly toxic to fish. insecticides began to take over the seed treatment market. %PDF-1.5 However, regulatory authorities around the globe emphasize that when used according to the label instructions, clothianidin residues on food are not expected to exceed safe levels (as defined by each nation's laws and regulations). [67] In April 2018, the member states of the European Union decided to ban the three main neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) for all outdoor uses. As a result, the potential for clothianidin to move from the treated area to the nearby surface water body under the new uses is much greater than with use as a seed treatment. ���Ŧ��3�b���'������ia2wKB��� [6] In January 2013, the European Food Safety Authority stated that neonicotinoids including clothianidin pose an unacceptably high risk to bees, concluding, "A high acute risk to honey bees was identified from exposure via dust drift for the seed treatment uses in maize, oilseed rape and cereals. Workers are protected from clothianidin exposure through requirements for personal protective equipment, such as long-sleeve shirts, gloves, long pants, boots, and face mask or respirators as appropriate. Bobwhite quail eggshell thickness was affected when the test birds were given a diet consisting of relatively large amounts of clothianidin-treated seeds. [41], A 2011 Congressional Research Report describing some of the reasons why scientists believe honey bee colonies are being affected by CCD reported that the United States Department of Agriculture had concluded in 2009, "it now seems clear that no single factor alone is responsible for the malady." Information from standard tests and field studies, as well as incident reports involving other neonicotinoid insecticides (e.g., imidacloprid) suggest the potential for long term toxic risk to honey bees and other beneficial insects. [59] Indicative of the rapid advance of regulators' understanding of pollinator science, USEPA first accepted one of the studies as sound science in 2007, then reclassified it as invalid in November 2010 only to reclassify it as supplemental one month later. endobj [60] The changes in EPA's classification of this study have no effect on the regulatory status for clothianidin in the U.S. because the study does not provide data with which EPA can legally justify altering its 2003 registration decision. Clothianidin's major risk concern from sugar beet treatment is to non-target insects because of The date was postponed to May 2005 and they also granted Bayer the permission it had sought to conduct its study on canola in Canada, instead of on corn in the United States. SAMPLE LABELS OF PESTICIDES CONTAINING CLOTHIANIDIN. Honey bees are thought to possibly be affected by such chemicals, which are known to work their way through the plant up into the flowers and leave residues in the nectar and pollen that bees forage on. [11][21], Clothianidin is moderately toxic in the short-term to mammals that eat it, and long-term ingestion may result in reproductive and/or developmental effects. Bees disappeared at the level of 1 ng for clothianidin, while we could register the first bee losses for imidacloprid at doses exceeding 3 ng. Clothianidin users are also required to monitor the weather and not use the chemical or seeds treated with it on windy days or when rain is forecast. ����U��W�t�T������K��T�E�7�=t�\/�&q2������/���egd^�A�lj��`��L�c� �F���w0�����ܹ۷ >�)�`U�M{�ĮMH��A�l�be���\Zx�����Z��E���3L�S�i�s*&�jr�TJ �:�ֱ��i�7 ^�"#8�"�٦ح,(��$V��w������#!%�U��9 ܐ�il��=5�: [33] Since clothianidin is a systemic pesticide that is taken up by the plant, there is also potential for toxic chronic exposure resulting in long-term effects to bees and other pollinators from clothianidin residue in pollen and nectar. Trade Advice Note – Clothianidin in the product Samurai Syst emic Insecticide (APVMA Product Number 60687) Page 4 of 7 4. RB�z�?�7Da��n x�5p� q�.g/�,��~]9�^��ˌ�]l0gA� �U�˦%X��b��H���v�v��a�)�/@u����\R`��'j�|pD3'o"�\ӡ���Bj��K)TS4H�'2n�(��0���+�ч7e�V��G˃������A�/(&�-c��� *O. endobj Clothianidin 100 microg/mL in Acetonitrile. ��J+�c)� ��\�03,���V�RW�Jϫa��8+��J��7p5_�fU��>Q�@Wqf��������"�ħ�� All seed treated with this product must be conspicuously coloured at the time of treatment. 7 0 obj Clothianidin is currently registered with the U.S. EPA for use as an insecticide for seed treatment u,; ce on corn, rapeseed, and canola. ���֨�Wh%�5 m�h|�X���C���I?biշm��Dє1�,��6߉��l�_8SFG��yR$�Lr�^D3g�pK�H�j����R��57O�}�Q��M5b鼧"KgS,]\�k�k�;+vfM�������Ѹb����^D�O�Z��?�}A�\}&h�O����h�=��7Dm��"������h�������n���5�La}~Q��8�E�S�TtD�Yk�G�v�q�#�~yA!�O������~���~ͭ���#�� Q��]M�C�"��ұ�,�����Ă�uVF�z,������+*7��iQ֥�I#��Ldی��vpV˓��>��-��!�n�{���tbN>�p�U���q���I��S,��`g ^h)V���-�Sb��/���\�}�ۦTꕋ�]xGE�c�c�`2���|P�^������3O�A�wb��ۗjq�r�໿��T���)�y�׿���{g�mVz�Z�p%y��lϐ4 4������a�6a^0�h��. <> 3 0 obj Clothianidin has an insecticidal effect by [4][8][9][10][11][12][13], Although nicotine has been used as a pesticide for over 200 years it degraded too rapidly in the environment and lacked the selectivity to be very useful in large-scale agricultural situations. 8'g�4ݶ-r���x-�⊼� |v}�3���3�&�y� �$��on^�W�����Ƀ)�'����׸"V��� The study was not completed until 2007. 6.0” 6.75”. They note that the doses taken up by bees are not lethal, but they are concerned about possible chronic problems caused by long-term exposure. Eight nations voted against the motion, including the British government which argued that the science was incomplete. ), U.S.A. and Japan for various crops including grapes. [3][4][21], Permissible amounts of clothianidin residue on food and animal feed vary from crop to crop and nation to nation. However, in response to concerns raised by bee keepers, in November the EPA released a memorandum in which they stated that some of the studies submitted did not appear to be adequate and the unconditional registration was withdrawn. State Registration... 2EE. Clothianidin is an insecticide approved for use in the EU. Z{�s�]1��S�-�W8X��I�œX��E�lg�+�/��Σ���� For clothianidin, hazard mitigation includes establishing the maximum amount of the chemical that can be used (e.g. Additionally, clothianidin exposure had stronger effects on gene expression amplitude and alternative splicing than imi‐ dacloprid. It was first used in the U.S. on corn and canola in 2003. 2 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 16 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 41 0 R 42 0 R 43 0 R 47 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 67 0 R 68 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 72 0 R 76 0 R 77 0 R 83 0 R 89 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 106 0 R 115 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.68] /Contents 15 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> They concluded: "The consequent acute lethal effect evidenced in all the field sowing experiments can be well compared with the colony loss phenomena widely reported by beekeepers in spring and often associated to corn sowing. �'t'���5kJǭ���sTƮ��?��|q~׮��v���1N��S�~H���?�{���լ�� 1�6�GQœ�v�V����G�yM�q$���[/��GY�����2q�#N>�#N{ڢ��җ�]���? Arena works as both a preventive and a curative, for outstanding control of chinch bugs, white grubs and a broad spectrum of other turf and ornamental pests with a single application. Renée Johnson for the Congressional Research Service January 7, 2010, European Food Safety Authority (16 January 2013), Tania Rabesandratana for ScienceInsiderApril 29, 2013, risk to freshwater and estuarine/marine fish, Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority, "Australian evaluation of the new active CLOTHIANIDIN", "Background Information On Use Of Neonicotinoid Pesticides And Their Effects On Bees", Congressional Research Service Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder, "Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance clothianidin", "Registration Decision RD2013-14, Clutch 50 WDG, Arena 50 WDG and Clothianidin Insecticides", "Mode of Action Classification Table for Uk Approved Insecticide Active Substances", "Background Information On Use Of Neonicotinoid Pesticides And Their Effects On Bees, see Action in other Member States", Discovery and Development of aNovel Insecticide “Clothianidin”, Leaked document shows EPA allowed bee-toxic pesticide despite own scientists’ red flags | Grist, "USEPA Freedom of Information Act e-Reading Room for Clothianidin", "Clothinidin Status: 2010 Reclassification of Clothianidin Field Study for Pollinators", Emergency Citizen Petition to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Advice Summary, Application for Registration of a Chemical Product", "Advice Summary, Application for Variation of a Registered Chemical Product", "Evaluation Report ERC2011-01, Clutch 50 WDG, Arena 50 WDG and Clothianidin Insecticides", "Proposed Maximum Residue Limit PMRL2011-30, Clothianidin", "U.S. Federal Register Notice: Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances", "Keeping our Food Safe: Measuring, Monitoring and Assessing Residues", "Official Journal of the European Union, amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for chlorothalonil clothianidin, difenoconazole, fenhexamid, flubendiamide, nicotine, spirotetramat, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam in or on certain products", UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY MEMORANDUMSUBJECT: Clothianidin Registration of Prosper T400 Seed Treatment on Mustard Seed (Oilseed and Condiment) and Poncho/Votivo Seed Treatment on Cotton, "'Pollination crisis' hitting India's vegetable farmers", "Australian evaluation of the new active CLOTHIANIDIN, p35", "Clothianidin Status web page, Risk Assessment and Risk Mitigation section", "Weakening, collapse and mortality of bee colonies, last bullet on p. 49", "Weakening, collapse and mortality of bee colonies, p.88", "Evaluation of Pesticide Incident Report 2010-3100", "Evaluation of Pesticide Incident Report 2010-3391", "Evaluation of Pesticide Incident Report 2010-4374", "Pesticide News Story: EPA Acts to Protect Bees", "Ecotoxicity of Neonicotinoid Insecticides to Bees", "Assessment of the Environmental Exposure of Honeybees to Particulate Matter Containing Neonicotinoid Insecticides Coming from Corn Coated Seeds", "RFID Tracking of Sublethal Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Behavior of, "Researchers: Honeybee deaths linked to seed insecticide exposure", "Multiple Routes of Pesticide Exposure for Honey Bees Living Near Agricultural Fields", "Re-registration Requirements Following Further Annex I Inclusion Decisions, see Other updates section", "Weakening, collapse and mortality of bee colonies, pp.143-144", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 45422440", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 45422439", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 45422431", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 45422436", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 45422437", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 45422435", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 45422438", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 45422434", "Reclassification of MRID 46907801 Data Package for Clothianidin", "Data Evaluation Record, Honey Bee - Field Testing for Pollinators MRID 46907801/46907802", "January 24, 2011 International SETAC Pellston Workshop", "Notice of Approval Number: 0065 of 2011, Approval and Consent for a Plant Protection Product", "Assessment of the scientific information from the Italian project 'APENET' investigating effects on honeybees of coated maize seeds with some neonicotinoids and fipronil", European Commission Goes Ahead With Controversial Pesticide Ban, "Insecticide 'unacceptable' danger to bees, report finds", "Total ban on bee-harming pesticides likely after major new EU analysis", "EU agrees total ban on bee-harming pesticides ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clothianidin&oldid=969282885, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, environmental persistence in soil and subsequent uptake in rotational crops, long-term effects on honey bees and other pollinators, acute toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, This page was last edited on 24 July 2020, at 13:52. ��\���n(j։���dQ��5�Sk8|,w�f.�?c�Dfq{�B�@��c3���^в_����E ��`ݻ�6m��l4 $�bj��Ռ�J@+��+��R3~4�� �y��xs� These reports prompted a formal peer review by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which stated in January 2013 that neonicotinoids, including clothianidin, pose an unacceptably high risk to bees, and that the industry-sponsored science upon which regulatory agencies' claims of safety have relied on may be flawed and contain several data gaps not previously considered. When extrapolated to humans, these results suggest that clothianidin is moderately toxic through oral exposure, but toxicity is low through skin contact or inhalation. Clothianidin ist ein systemisches Insektizid mit Kontakt- und Fraßgiftwirkung. [3][4][5], According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), clothianidin's major risk concern is to nontarget insects (honey bees). To reduce the possibility that birds and small mammals might eat treated seeds, users are required to ensure that soil covers planted seeds and that any spilled seed is picked up. Laboratory and field testing revealed that clothianidin shows relatively low toxicity to many test species but is highly or very highly toxic to others. [29][30][31][32], The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority notes that clothianidin ranks "among the most highly acutely toxic insecticides to bees" through contact and oral exposure. [66], In February 2018, the European Food Safety Authority published a new report indicating that neonicotinoids pose a serious danger to both honey bees and wild bees. Clothianidin 107 5.7 CLOTHIANIDIN (238) TOXICOLOGY Clothianidin is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)–approved name for E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC])(Chemical Abstracts Service [CAS] No. [6][42], A report released in 2012 found a close relationship between the deaths of bees and the use of pneumatic drilling machines for the sowing of corn seeds coated with clothianidin and other neonicotinoid insecticides. 13 0 obj [3][4], Once laboratory and field data identify hazards associated with a chemical, regulatory authorities take different approaches to mitigate those hazards and bring the risks down to acceptable levels, as defined by each nation's laws and regulations. x��]YoI�~7���O���(�q��h4 �e[3�VU�ј�jY��-y%Mc��/ɼY���R�Nc�:H#��dux��r�u{������������/�χ������JGOwo���/���7]jG�7o��WQi�������Ļ8���b���7 ��΢_�߾I�_�]^�����ϋ�ߗ�-�n�<0�ߖ��>���|V���,�^m���� C\����Z�8`>|� r��6�����&o؄l�z���-u�3g.q̠]�)���ԁ��V;��ǟ�gO;��������x%iQ%��5���K����9����! [65], Following on the release of the EFSA report in January 2013, the UK Parliament has asked manufacturer Bayer Cropscience to explain discrepancies in evidence they have submitted to an investigation. 4 0 obj In a 2010 EPA report, it was noted that the registrant (e.g. It is considered to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates if disposal of wastes according to disposal instructions are not followed. stream n�*-�ď"h�/s��Y��g%��K[1up=A��\������8-"��k��t�+��(�!��ET��D9 �J�Z9`�)�ޢGRC��1��19�|(3)(!HN���!J�: ��q(9� � Toxicity varies depending on whether the exposure occurs on a short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic) basis. EPA classified the remainder as supplemental, generally because Bayer AG conducted the studies without EPA first approving the protocols. CAS-210880-92-5. endobj Es wurde von Takeda Chemical Industries und der Bayer AG gemeinsam um 2000 entwickelt und 2004 in Deutschland unter dem Produktnamen Poncho zugelassen. Poncho® 600 is a systemic insecticide seed treatment for use on canola, rapeseed, corn, and sorghum for the control of listed insect pests. endstream Bayer still markets the insecticide for seed treatment uses under the Poncho brand. <>>> <> [21][22][23][24][25][26], In the 2003 United States EPA assessment report it was stated that clothianidin should not present a direct acute or chronic risk to freshwater and estuarine/marine fish, or a risk to terrestrial or aquatic vascular and nonvascular plants. The basic mode of action is to target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the insect central nervous system [ 19, 21 ]. particularly suspect class of insecticides, especially in combination with the dozens of other pesticides found in honeybee hives. Their review concluded, "A high acute risk to honey bees was identified from exposure via dust drift for the seed treatment uses in maize, oilseed rape and cereals. [28] Beginning in 2006, beekeepers in the United States began to report unexplained losses of hives — 30 percent and upward — leading to a phenomenon called colony collapse disorder (CCD). endobj Clothianidin. It poses lower risks to mammals, including humans, when compared to organophosphates and carbamates. <> endobj 14 0 obj })�3�ܧ"y���LeRm��$�ߤ��]!x+�ˌv�������*���re0�����7x��δ�Xx�泿�����JA���vY�k��Pܣ��4L���4K������zS�nR���ڢ����4~�p5�8H����iH��AhH��H0�t��X�g"���e��B�]��}i~Vw������\�� zڥٞ%�X�l�,Ǽu-��|/*pX{�]�j��:M�pU�{��˃ ���tF 2g8ϻ��lD䀢E2P�H|�eҋ��h Similar to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, it is a neonicotinoid. <> ��6����V�YoQ�dV�b��ֵHIHf 10 0 obj ) ��7t�!��4�O�kwC�Q��J/0S 5͇t�!���w� ��c���퐍? In a November 2007 memo EPA scientists declared the study “scientifically sound,” adding that it, “satisfies the guideline requirements for a field toxicity test with honeybees.”[3][15], Clothianidin continued to be sold under a conditional registration, and in April 2010 it was granted an unconditional registration for use as a seed treatment for corn and canola. The clothianidin in Poncho® 600 seed treatment provides broad-spectrum efficacy against a range of soil and plant pests, with faster-acting protection than the competition, such as products featuring thiamethoxam. A high acute risk was also identified from exposure via residues in nectar and/or pollen. You may also contact 800-892-0099 for emergency medical treatment information. 210880 -92-5). For mice, acute oral toxicity was moderate to high. endobj SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDE POISON KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN READ SAFETY DIRECTIONS BEFORE OPENING OR USING ACTIVE CONSTITUENT: 500 g/kg CLOTHIANIDIN For the control of mealybug, woolly aphid and codling moth in apples and pears, green peach aphid and oriental fruit moth in peaches and nectarines, mealybug in grapes, Queensland and Mediterranean Fruit Fly in table … Mammals, including humans, when compared to organophosphates and carbamates grade clothianidin is! Both are known to be a skin sensitizer or irritant and field testing revealed that shows. Auch über die Wurzeln, aber auch über die Blätter aufgenommen und gut der., or going for treatment manufacturers must provide data skin sensitizer or irritant insecticide for seed treatment subsequently! Is highly or very highly toxic to others involving direct Application of clothianidin to the land surface and as... ] in April 2013, the European Union voted for a two-year restriction on insecticides... Address this problem, the neonicotinoids ( chloronicotinyl insecticides ) were developed as a neonicotinoid type of was! Been developed and commercialized by Sumitomo Chemical Takeda Agro Company, Ltd State. High-Target specificity to insects uses of clothianidin, is acceptable and other mammals generally because Bayer conducted! By State Select a State to refine the results below large-scale use out there Arena®., or going for treatment to take over the seed treatment uses, order! The plant grows whether the exposure occurs on a short-term ( acute ) or long-term ( chronic ) basis report. 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