It went through another religious conversion after the conquest of Constantinople by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1453, when it was designated a mosque. 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"Museum or Mosque? The Hagia Sophia combines a longitudinal basilica and a centralized building in a wholly original manner, with a huge 32-metre (105-foot) main dome supported on pendentives and two semidomes, one on either side of the longitudinal axis. The Hagia Sophia is part of the UNESCO World Heritage site in Istanbul. It was also an important site of Muslim worship after Sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453 and designated the structure a mosque. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). jomnichapa. σία, Megálē Ekklēsíā, 'Great Church'), because of its larger dimensions in comparison to the contemporary churches in the city. The first of the three Christian structures to be built on the site had another name altogether: Megale Ekklesia, or “Great Church.”. The Emperor Door, Hagia Sophia Museum, "Aya Sofya or Hagia Sophia Mosque-Church and Museum", "Hagia Sophia. The structure now standing is essentially the 6th-century edifice, although an earthquake caused a partial collapse of the dome in 558 (restored 562) and there were two further partial collapses, after which it was rebuilt to a smaller scale and the whole church reinforced from the outside. Hagia Sophia, Turkish Ayasofya, Latin Sancta Sophia, also called Church of the Holy Wisdom or Church of the Divine Wisdom, an important Byzantine structure in Istanbul and one of the world’s great monuments. Floor plan of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. Muslims offer evening prayers outside the Byzantine-era Hagia Sophia, one of Istanbul's main tourist attractions, following the decision to reconvert it into a mosque on July 10. Murad Sezer / … It was converted to a mosque by the Turks and is now used as a museum. Updates? As Turkey’s most popular tourist destination, the Hagia Sophia remained open to visitors. The Hagia Sophia was one of the Roman Empire's first Christian cathedrals, after St. John Lateran in Rome, and is among the best-known Byzantine … Irene Ducas, detail of a 12th-century mosaic in the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It was founded in 537 under the Emperor Justinian. Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία in Greek), the Church of Holy Wisdom, known variously as Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, is an ancient cathedral of the Church of Constantinople located in modern-day Istanbul, Turkey. Istanbul's Hagia Sophia has been a monument to selective readings of history. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Night view of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. Since then, mosaics were added throughout the Byzantine period, structural modifications were made in both the Byzantine and Ottoman periods, and features important to the Islamic architectural tradition were constructed during Ottoman ownership of the structure. 54-61)", "The Medieval Russian Account of the Fourth Crusade – A New Annotated Translation", Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, "History of Hagia Sophia - the Church of Holy Wisdom", "A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia", 360 Degree Virtual Tour of Hagia Sophia Mosque Museum, Gigapixel of Hagia Sophia Dome ( 214 Billion Pixel ), Hagia Sophia Museum, Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture & Tourism, The Most Visited Museums of Turkey: Hagia Sophia Museum, Governorship of Istanbul, Hagia Sophia Mosque, Istanbul Directorate of Culture & Tourism, Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar Literature Museum Library, Holy Martyrs Menodora, Metrodora, and Nymphodora, Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), Kefeli (Monastery of Manuel / St. Nicholas), Koca Mustafa Pasha (St. Andrew in Krisei), Little Haghia Sophia (SS. Pope Francis says he is 'deeply pained' over Turkey's decision on Hagia Sophia The Hagia Sophia was built in Istanbul as a Christian cathedral before it became a museum in 1934 This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hagia-Sophia, History Learning Site - The Balfour Declaration of 1917, The Met - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey, LiveScience - Hagia Sophia: Facts, History and Architecture, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism - Hagia Sophia Museum, Hagia Sophia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Hagia Sophia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Byzanz – das Römerreich im Mittelalter Teil 2, 1 Schauplätze, Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Forschungsinstitut für Vor- und Frühgeschichte", "Die Hagia Sophia Justinians – Mathematischer Raum als Bühne des Kaisers", "pendentive (architecture) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia", "The Nice Door." Hagia Sophia | "Hagia Sophia Cathedral" Turkey Islamic History Prior to that, the site had been home to a pagan temple. Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced the decision after a court annulled the site's museum status. For more than a millennium it was the Cathedral of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. His son, Constantius II, consecrated it in 360. Pres. St. sophia cathedral , istanbul, turkey Premium Photo 10 months ago. Download this Premium Photo about St. sophia cathedral , istanbul, turkey, and discover more than 7 Million Professional Stock Photos on Freepik Collect. Bringing the structure in line with the Islamic tradition called for a series of other modifications, not all of which were undertaken during the reign of Mehmed II. After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II had it repurposed as a mosque, with the addition of a wooden minaret (on the exterior, a tower used for the summons to prayer), a great chandelier, a mihrab (niche indicating the direction of Mecca), and a minbar (pulpit). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In subsequent centuries it became a mosque, a museum, and a mosque again. Saint Sophia is the finest and most famous example of BYZANTINE architecture in the world. Art historians consider the building’s beautiful mosaics to be the main source of knowledge about the state of mosaic art in the time shortly after the end of the Iconoclastic Controversy in the 8th and 9th centuries. The structure originally erected on the site of the Hagia Sophia was a Christian cathedral called the Megale Ekklesia, which was commissioned by the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I. Either he or his son Bayezid II erected the red minaret that stands on the southeast corner of the structure. It served as a center of religious, political, and artistic life for the Byzantine world and has provided us with many useful scholarly insights into the period. The original church to occupy the site (called the Megale Ekklesia) was commissioned by Emperor Constantine I in 325, razed during a riot in 404, later rebuilt, and destroyed once again in 532 before Justinian commissioned the building that exists today. Hagia Sophia. Pope Francis said on Sunday that he is 'deeply pained' over the decision by Turkey to change the status of Hagia Sophia - which was originally built in Istanbul as a Christian cathedral -- … Sales: 800-685-3602 It was converted into a museum a year later, a decision which remains controversial. St Sophia Cathedral was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List among theother monuments of Istanbul’s historic center in … You may also like. Sultan Mehmed II designated the previously Christian church a mosque shortly after he conquered the city in 1453. The nice door, Hagia Sophia Museum, "The Emperor Door." Until 1453, when the Ottoman Turks took the city and renamed it Istanbul, Hagia Sophia served as a cathedral, the seat of the patriarch of Constantinople. Hagia Sophia is an UNESCO World Heritage Site and the former cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Istanbul. Pope Francis says he is “deeply pained” over the decision by Turkey to change the status of Istanbul's Hagia Sophia — built as a Christian cathedral — from a museum to a mosque. ", This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 13:45. View of istanbul cityscape galata tower with floating tourist boats in bosphorus ,istanbul turkey. OXFORD, England (CNS) — Catholic bishops in Turkey pledged not to contest plans to turn Istanbul’s ancient Hagia Sophia cathedral that now serves as a museum into a Muslim place of worship. 5. Corrections? Nova PBS program; originally aired 2/25/2015", "Influence of the Infiltrated Rainwater on the Degradation of the Inner Wall in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul", "The Image of the Virgin on the Sinai Hexaptych and the Apse Mosaic of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople", "The Apse Mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul. Hagia Sophia is not, in fact, the only name that the structure has gone by. Turkey is once again on its way to becoming a radical Islamist state. The Hagia Sophia was built in the remarkably short time of about six years, being completed in 537 ce. For the past eighty years Hagia Sophia has been a museum. The original wooden minaret did not survive. Photo about St. Sophia Cathedral , Istanbul, Turkey on a bright day. Saint Sophia should be returned to Christians,” the parliamentarian said. In 1934 Turkish Pres. The Hagia Sophia rising along the shore of the Bosporus, Istanbul. Jörg Drauschke (Hrsg.) According to the Chronicon Paschale, the church was consecrated on 15 February 360, during the reign of the emperor Constantius II (r. 337–361), by the Arian bishop Eudoxius of Antioch, it was built next to the area where the Great Palace was being developed. The building reflects the religious changes that have played out in the region over the centuries, with the minarets and inscriptions of Islam as well as the lavish mosaics of Christianity. It is located in heart of old Istanbul, next to the Blue Mosque in the Sultan Ahmet Square (Sultanahmet Meydani) Istanbul. The name Hagia Sophia didn’t come about until around 430 CE. The Virgin Mary and Child between Justinian I (left), holding a model of Hagia Sophia, and Constantine (right), holding a model of the city of Constantinople. Red minaret that stands on the Fourth Crusade of structural supports Ahmet Square ( Sultanahmet )! 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