The world has not yet had to experience a real oil shortage because it can count on Saudi Arabia to increase production and pick up the slack when needed. Students of military history tend to pay lip service to the importance of logistics, preferring to read about tanks and artillery, mass and maneuver, attack and counterattack. I picked up a self-published book on this topic called "Wartime Woodburners - Gas Producer Vehicles in World War II, An Overview", by John Fuller Ryan on Amazon. Although Allied senior air leaders had identified the German oil industry as a key target system for strategic bombing as early as 1940, they had focused more on German cities since late 1940 and German industries, especially aircraft factories, after August 1942. (Courtesy photo), During the oil campaign, Fifteenth Air Force flew mostly B-24 Liberator strategic bombers for its 221 missions from bases in southern Italy and dropped 48,378 tons of bombs. Germany saw synthetic petroleum as a way to use its existing organic coal to decrease reliance on foreign imports, while at the same time fill the growing need for fuel. The Allied bombers had trouble hitting the oil fields and refinery - like other bombing raids in WWII, the majority of the bombs failed to hit their targets. (Courtesy Germany Archives, Photograph 146-2007-0056), Royal Air Force (RAF) flew mostly Handley Page Halifax strategic bombers for its 200 missions during which it dropped 93,691 tons of bombs. 10 Food Inventions That Changed The Way We Eat Breakfast. To help produce the glycerin needed by the military, housewives also collected kitchen waste fats. The goal was to starve the enemy, disrupting public life and damaging the country as much as possible. Overview about the relative comparison of the military production and wartime expenditures of the Axis and Allies in But a shortage of transport that was competing with military requirements, a shortage of drill equipment as well as drillers, and the absence of refining capacity at Maikop created such difficulties that when the German forces were compelled to withdraw from Maikop in January 1943 in order to avoid being cut off after the fall of Stalingrad, Germany had failed to … (Courtesy photo), Between May 1944 and May 1945, Eighth Air Force in southeast England flew B-17 Flying Fortress strategic bombers during its 233 missions during the oil campaign and dropped 66,497 tons of bombs. Given these desperate conditions, the German High Command launched the mid-December 1944 Ardennes Offensive, aimed at capturing Allied fuel supplies at Antwerp. These plants were large, complex facilities not easily dispersed or moved underground. On 12 May the USAAF hit East German synthetic oil plants at Leuna, Böhlen, Zeitz and Lutzendorf; they were so badly damaged they could supply no oil for several weeks, being hit again later that month before they returned to production. Germany - Germany - Resources and power: Germany, which has relatively few domestic natural resources, imports most of its raw materials. This was followed by meat, fish, tea, jam, biscuits, breakfast cereals, cheese, eggs, milk and canned fruit. This article originally appeared on the Warfare History Network. Germany had only a small domestic-oil industry and depended heavily on Ploesti for its supply of oil and for most of its petroleum-based products. Rationing was part of life on the US Home Front during World War II. Table A2 in the Supplementary Data appendix lists the following quantities for 'Fuel hydration, oil drilling and benzol': 1943, 5,149,000 tons; 1944, … However, over time, the systematic bombing produced stunning results. The Allied oil campaign of World War II: 11 was directed by the RAF and USAAF against facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication (POL) products. BW Spekon German Army Bundeswehr P1 (p38) Walther Officer Holster. It imported oil from the Soviet Union until the German invasion of that country in June 1941 and from Hungary and Romania (25 percent of its annual requirements by 1944) after April 1941 when these two countries became German allies prior to the Soviet invasion. During World War II, the war caused a shortage of many items that people used on a daily basis. Campaigns Against Oil The Most Effective? Originally Published October 7, 2018. In particular, the Allied operations staff began using aerial photographs to monitor the German reconstruction efforts and then would launch a new attack against a specific plant as it was nearing full production capability. In 1974, the U.S. Military warned the oil still aboard the German warship was at risk of … 4 out of 5 stars (4) Total Ratings 4, $21.49 New. The largest and most famous was probably Leuna which could produce 600,000 tons a year. Given the limited quantities of crude oil from German-controlled oilfields, the German war machine depended extremely heavily on POL products—75 percent of its aviation gasoline—from 16 synthetic oil production plants, which turned German coal into oil. Synthetic fuel plants were located along the North Sea, in the Ruhr Valley, and in southern parts of Europe. Along with gasoline, sugar, coffee, processed foods, meat, and cheese—fats and oils were rationed. In addition, the Oil Plan significantly reduced the production of nitrogen, which soon produced shortages in the production of all types of munitions for weapons, fertilizers for agriculture and synthetic rubber. 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